Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has excellent strength and durability properties, which is very suitable for engineering application of concrete pavement subject to heavy truck loading and severe environmental conditions. However, the high cost of UHPC due to the usage of large amount of cement and the chemical and mineral admixtures holds back its application to pavement. In view of this, this study starts from the economic mixture design of UHPC by using the low-cost raw materials, and at the same time achieving a densely compacted cementitious matrix. The workability, mechanical, and the pavement-related durability properties were investigated on the designed low-cost UHPC. The results show that a reasonable selection of type and dosage of superplasticizer and partial replacement of cement by mineral fillers can improve the workability and efficiency of UHPC, without reducing the mechanical and durability propertis of UHPC. The desired low-cost UHPC mix design and structure design are recommended for constructing UHPC overlay.